f�Z�,m����R�~&�v����_>7�|�"wK,���ͺ\l}�3V�����WV^c��[�^��2��4;RW�mv�ώ�����e�̹�����>�����o�f���_/޾}{��',g]�r���/��W~�z��|�Z����"�h�K+�ol��8��J�Ͷ�g˥Ҿ�����������ѭ���=}zJ�Mey��l. Liberal feminists stress on the importance of an individual, and believe that every woman can assert her place in society and gain the rights she deserves. “Visionary feminism is a wise and loving politics. In answering these questions, I focus primarily on Angela Carter's wolf stories in The Bloody Chamber and Other Stories and the 1984 film adaptation, The Company of Wolves, cowritten by Carter and Neil Jordan. HQl190 .H67 2000 305.42'01 - dc21 00-036589 South End Press, 7 Brookline Street, #1, Cambridge, MA 02139 06 05 04 7 8 9 Printed in Canada CONTENTS INTRODUCTION Come Closer to Feminism 1. 4. Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical or philosophical fields. They, argue the phallus, a symbol of male power, dominates Western culture. Introducing Feminism in International Relations Theory Written by Sarah Smith This PDF is auto-generated for reference only. Learn more about feminism. 3. Because I am not examining the ideas of particular feminists but speaking of perspectives that have emerged from many theorists, I will talk of feminisms. Feminism - Political aspects. Because I am not examining the ideas of particular feminists but speaking of perspectives that have emerged from many theorists, I will talk of feminisms. As it grew to encompass those women who were not white and middle class it was caught in the trap that ensnares most social movements. My students and I work with a number of traditional motifs in film and literature, focusing on versions and references in popular culture. Working with women who seek help requires that you are aware of and understand the full context of their experiences and development across the lifespan. Rather, there have been evolutions of the different frameworks under the broad heading of "feminist theory" since the late 1700s. Theory and Practice* Socialist feminism arose in the late 1960’s. Different Kinds of Feminism Overview: By reviewing different types of feminism, people gain an understanding of the range of feminisms that have emerged since the 1960s and how their different approaches respond to problems of patriarchy and power. 1. •Feminists act, speak, write and advocate on queer theory. During the 1980s, feminist literary criticism was marked by an often contentious split between those pragmatically committed to the recovery of the woman writer and, with her, something usually called women’s experience,¹ and those concerned to explore the implications for feminism of postmodern theories that question the legitimacy of such constructs as the author and experience. currently teach a course on the representation of female archetypes in fairy tales. 4 The quote is from Toril Moi, Sexual/Textual Politics: Feminist Literary Theory (London and New York: Methuen, 1985), 159. Much as feminist science studies shifted the epistemological assumptions of objective, disembodied knowing, so too can feminist media theory surface, as Beller writes, “the white masculine privilege in knowledge making.” This issue makes critical interventions in both media studies and feminism. The birth of second-wave feminist movements in the late 1960s and early 1970s saw a flowering of theoretical positions linked to specific political strategies. Feminist research provides less biased and vague answers to questions evolving from the lives of women concerning the patriarchal society. Feminist criticism Feminism and feminist criticism The .worncn's movement" of the 1960s Was not, of course, the start of feminism. Radical feminists see sexism as the oldest and most pervasive form of, oppression; they argue that the eradication of patriarchy and compulsory heterosexuality are key, to ending gender oppression. Feminist Sociology in the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s: “The Second Wave” 5. Definition• Feminism is the belief that women should have equal rights to men. Reasons for nonreporting include the fear of retaliation, a reluctance to be viewed as a victim, a fear that one is being "too sensitive," and the belief that nothing will be done. capitalists and individual men exploit women's unpaid reproductive labor within the family. stories women students tell about sexual harassment, including what they count as sexual harassment, for more or different clues to their persistent nonreporting. Reprinted in Henry Abelove, Michkle Aina Barale, and David Halperin, eds., The Lesbian and Gay Studies Reader. Title. It grew out of the same social ferment and the same consciousness-raising groups that produced other forms of feminism. endstream endobj startxref They argue, women's bodies are controlled through violence, objectification, and social institutions such as, medicine and religion. We selected 2 theoretical lenses heretofore not used to explain responses to sexual harassment: 3rd-wave feminist theory to think about how current women students conceive sexual harassment and personality theory to explain beliefs about nonreporting. They focus on the roles of women as mothers within communities who can use this position to. %%EOF I assumed, in short, that feminism had a theory of gender as marxism had a theory of class. Using symbolic interaction as an analytical, According To Jack Zipes, Readers Intuitively Know that a narrative is a fairy tale, and the same can be said of fairy tale film (1997, 61).1 But even though the genre is recognizable regardless of form or medium, audience approaches can be unpredictable. It fragmented, became exclusive rather than inclusive. The following key terms are defined; Liberal Feminist Theory and Early Childhood Development. Feminism and Feminist Sociology in the Post-War Era 4. FEMINISM, LIBERAL 333 "Thinking Sex: Notes for a Radical Theory of the Politics of Sexuality." Boulder, CO: Westview Press. queer theory. Since then, feminism has developed into theory and to what is now known as feminist literary criticism. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. embrace this critical and politicized view of society as he grew older and converted to Afrocentric Islam. These insights are by no means new. Marxist and Socialist feminists root gender inequality in capitalism. participation in the public spheres of education, politics, and employment. Introduction 2. h�bbd```b``�N �Lrj�Șp�zDo�>���@l��`�7@�a���������q �4F2���� \�" This perspective includes Black, Chicana, multicultural, and third world feminisms. politics of social spatiality. In this chapter, I want to explore a particular audience's reactions and understanding when a specific familiar text is adapted to film. their bodies, including transforming sexuality, childbirth, and motherhood. 1. 3. . Feminist Thought. by Barbara Ehrenreich This article, which first appeared in WIN magazine on June 3, 1976, and is reprinted here with the author’s permission, is a classic of socialist feminist thought. The desire of both feminists and anti-feminists to control feminism emerges as the limiting of what feminism is, whom it is for, and where it is going. At the risk of oversimplification and reductionism, we can summarize the “map” of feminist approaches as it is commonly explained in overviews of feminist theory Solutions call for an. Feminism Theory 1. ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication. If the gendered values of fairy tales inform and are informed by Euro-North American cultural pedagogy, how do my students respond to them? Feminist Theory: A Philosophical Anthology addresses seven philosophically significant questions regarding feminism, its central concepts of sex and gender, and the project of centering women’s experience. • Liberal feminism leans towards an equality or sameness argument with men. androgynous society, possibly created through dual parenting. It encompasses work in a variety of disciplines, including anthropology, sociology, economics, women's studies, literary criticism, art history, psychoanalysis and philosophy. All rights reserved. They advocate for remedies that focus on the, survival of entire peoples, rather than solely on women. Beckett: Choosing Cesarean. - It aims to understand the nature of gender inequality. Liberal feminism argues women's unequal access to legal, social, political and economic, institutions causes women's oppression. Self-reflexivity through feminist standpoint theory Harstock (1983) defines standpoint feminism as a medium to bring to light all forms of domination and erase. Feminist Theory. vestment in contemporary debates in feminist theory and the urgent politi-cal necessity of forming strategic coalitions across class, race, and national boundaries. tential of the feminist theory I found so exciting. Introduction PART ONE: DEPARTING FROM TRADITIONAL FARE Feminisim's Critique of Traditional Social and Political Thought Feminism's Difference from Traditional Social and Political Thought PART TWO: ACTIVE INGREDIENTS Debates 'Within' Feminism about Feminism Overviews of Feminist Thought PART THREE: WHAT'S ON THE MENU? Some very important objectives of liberal feminism are abortion rights, equal pay for male and female employees, educational rights, voting rights, childcare, health care, etc. According to this approach, which typically equates “feminism” with “feminist theory,” “liberal feminists” such as Betty Friedan (see Significant Others, p. 317), focus on Feminism is a complex set of ideologies and theories, that at its core seeks to achieve equal social, political, and economic rights for women and men.Feminism refers to a diverse variety of beliefs, ideas, movements, and agendas for action. Feminism - Philosophy. 1837. The resulting in-depth interviews . %PDF-1.6 %���� Power is clearly a crucial concept for feminist theory. Theory and Practice* Socialist feminism arose in the late 1960’s. They argue. Radical feminism claims women's oppression originates in sexuality. Feminist Sociology in the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s: “The Second Wave” 5. We used systematic inductive guidelines to analyze the transcribed data, linking to and building new theoretical frameworks to provide an interpretive understanding of the lived experiences of the women in our study. Liber… Feminist theory can be They show how privilege and disadvantage are built into a matrix of domination and, intersect to produce unique forms of oppression. FEMINIST POLITICS In particular, what do fairy tales teach girls and women about femininity, and how do these stories reinforce or subvert broader cultural concepts about gender and sexuality? Title. There is an understandable misinterpretation which regards African feminism as a part of Third Wave feminism, however, it is within the realm of the Third Wave feminist interpretation that the tensions between race and culture begin to appear. Framework Three: Feminist Theory and Education. Marina Warner calls this implicit pedagogy the "suspect whiff of femininity" in fairy tales (1994, xiv). 2. endstream endobj 286 0 obj <> endobj 287 0 obj <>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC/ImageI]/XObject<>>>/Rotate 90/Type/Page>> endobj 288 0 obj <>stream 3. feminist theory only tacitly. The author illustrates how an informed understanding of the impact of motherhood on women's identities provides an essential framework for a more relevant critique of dominant models of human relationships. h�̗kh��/��������BKggfgv6���֒l="��h���H�]igV��j�EqTI��O-�P�LSpKA׍�T��8��;��(�mq�V%�. 2. It encompasses work in a variety of disciplines, including anthropology, sociology, economics, women's studies, literary criticism, art history, psychoanalysis, and philosophy. Theories argue early childhood, experiences shape women's psyches and create differences between men and women. tool, the author comes to insightful, and politically relevant conclusions. and economic restructuring; it includes women’s exploitation as workers and sexual beings. Tong, Rosemarie. FEMINIST THEORY Feminist Theory is an outgrowth of the general movement to empower woman worldwide. 4 The quote is from Toril Moi, Sexual/Textual Politics: Feminist Literary Theory (London and New York: Methuen, 1985), 159. All analyze women's experiences of gender, subordination, the roots of women's oppression, how gender inequality is perpetuated, and offer. - It is the extension of feminism into theoretical or philosophical discourse. Feminism - Political aspects. Feminist Theory - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. Although largely originating in the West, feminism is manifested worldwide and is represented by various institutions committed to activity on behalf of women’s rights and interests. From: International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001. Postcolonial feminist theory exerts a pressure on mainstream postcolonial theory in its constant iteration of the necessity to consider gender issues. We used focus groups to interview 30 women students at 5 U.S. medical schools. Sage, Feminist theories are varied and diverse. L. Stone, in International Encyclopedia of Education (Third Edition), 2010. Feminist research provides less biased and vague answers to questions evolving from the lives of women concerning the patriarchal society. This chapter explores these ideas in the light of contemporary feminism and the increasing popularity of postfeminist ideology. Harding talks about the classification of the three positions: feminist standpoint theory, feminist empiricism and feminist postmodernism. becomes a woman Simone de Beauvoir. of feminism is useful because it plainly but powerfully encapsulates the starting point of feminist theory: “feminism is a movement to end sexism, sexist exploitation, and oppression”.16,17 Just as there is no singular understanding of feminism, there is no single feminist theory. Women are also exploited as a low-wage and expendable reserve army of labor. . Related terms: Geography; Sociology; Sexual Behaviour Classical Sociology 3. As such, it may contain some conversion errors and/or missing information. However, the fact that these tropes can be identified in almost 200 years of Black women's social theory in the US is far more distinctive than many allow. Postmodern feminists avoid overarching causes or solutions of gender inequality and. The notion of visionary feminism, as seen in the many writings of the African-American feminist, bell hooks, combines the need to challenge patriarchy, class, race and other forms of oppression such as imperialism and corporate control. Feminist theory aims to understand gender inequality and focuses on gender politics, power relations and sexuality. In order to examine the various forms of oppression that devalue women, it is necessary to adopt a feminist standpoint. PPT Classical Sociology 3. By shifting the focus of social theory away from the perspectives and experiences of men, feminist theorists have created social theories that are more inclusive and creative than those that assume the social actor to always be a man. Objective: Feminism has grown rapidly in the last 40 years as both a multidisciplinary voice advocating for change and an area of scholarship and theory building. By shifting the focus of social theory away from the perspectives and experiences of men, feminist theorists have created social theories that are more inclusive and creative than those that assume the social actor to always be a man. As it became clear that this At the heart of the theories in this chapter is social stratification by class and power, and they are the most “politicized” of all criminological theories. Marxist. Defining Liberal Feminist Theory HQl190 .H67 2000 305.42'01 - dc21 00-036589 South End Press, 7 Brookline Street, #1, Cambridge, MA 02139 06 05 04 7 8 9 Printed in Canada CONTENTS INTRODUCTION Come Closer to Feminism 1. Feminist theory, in developing feminist cultural pedagogy, approaches these images with a critical eye. This volume also provides pertinent data on how class, marital status, and work shape the ways in which women create identities for themselves as mothers. Consistent with previous literature, most of the students interviewed had either witnessed or observed sexual harassment. How do contemporary revisions, including literary and film versions, challenge or reinforce this "suspect whiff" and the feminine ideals it engenders? Liberal Feminism Since Alison’s Jaggar’s influential work in constructing a taxonomy of feminist positions, “liberal feminists” have been taken to support a fundamentally libertarian political agenda based on the assumption that formal equality under the law suffices to eliminate As a consequence, interpretative frameworks are often more implicit than explicit and researchers tend to work from the assumption that femi-nism is an internally coherent body of thought. In my classroom, I employ the term cultural pedagogy to refer to the ways that my students learn about gender, race, class, and other social characteristics through their representations in literature, film, visual art, and popular culture media such as television, advertizing, magazines, and the Internet. Feminist theory includes attempts to describe and explain how gender systems work, as well as a consideration of normative or ethical issues, such as whether a society's gender arrangements are fair. •Feminist movements aim at achieving and establishing equality between women and men. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1984, 267-319. FEMINIST THERAPY The groundwork for becoming a feminist therapist extends far beyond a discussion of theory and technique. While providing a critique of these social and political relations, much of feminist theory focuses on the promotion of women's right… Women of color criticize feminist theories for ignoring coexisting forms of oppression. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Hj �e�P4�Ial������d]ѱ�IJ@#]R�zB�&���TtY:m�(�Qh�V�w�6J��}�1�y�+J��^�v��V�K�nn�{cCX�Uϭ�6��-U����t�g�j���uӉ��P�TX���6=���a�J�~z�MEX!6��iV�,�`y|�>��P?�d1V�X>vrq~�埳�~V�����S�O.�� �r|���o�^e V��b��b'O�/��5VL|������ʟޜ[Zt]�ݛ7Xa���V��d����WV�=������z�����'���}VH�����=��^��v�L��WX޺��u���wW]����_X.ry��w޻�y�Ko�q��*+�^#l������W�h^��֋��+��;�����?a��������˞[?��5+U�e�\.��x�-=15� explore paths to motherhood that these women followed, as well as their experiences after giving birth. Feminism, the belief in social, economic, and political equality of the sexes. The book serves as a text for courses in family sociology, sociology of gender, gender studies, and feminist theory, and for sociology courses focusing on the use of qualitative methodology. It seeks to, correct the male bias in psychoanalytic theory, producing theories that explore women's, experiences with their emotions, bodies and sexuality. Feminism and Feminist Sociology in the Post-War Era 4. While most feminist theorists throughout history have been women, people of all genders can be found working in the discipline today. Knowing in Space: Three Lessons from Black Women's Social Theory. They call, for a transformation of relations within the family through a redistribution of responsibilities, and. Islamic Feminism and Feminist Theory Abstract Western feminist theory has developed significantly from its early roots in the suffrage movement. It refers to any actions, especially organized, that promote changes in society to end patterns that have disadvantaged women. What Is Socialist Feminism? Feminist theory in education generally has aligned itself with frameworks, trends, and categories in the larger academy. 2005. 310 0 obj <>stream It grew out of the same social ferment and the same consciousness-raising groups that produced other forms of feminism. When applying feminist literary criticism to a text, one can discover a female narrative supported by its characters, themes, etc. While most feminist theorists throughout history have been women, people of all genders can be found working in the discipline today. All content in this area was uploaded by Michelle Budig on Jan 15, 2014, Published, 2008, in Encyclopedia of Social Problems, Vincent N. Parrillo, editor. Third wave feminism is a feminist movement which began in the mid 1990’ s and has continued until this day. One is not born but rather. Feminism - Philosophy. Feminist Theory and then discuss laws, practices and policies in education that were designed to address gender imbalances at primary school, with special emphasis on Early Childhood Development (E.C.D). feminisms and feminist theorists can be contemplated. Simply put, Nnameka argues that Western feminists’ lived experiences should not dictate the narrative around feminism, and not necessarily inform how feminism should be applied in other parts of the world, namely Africa. example, in Italian Feminist Theory and Practice (Parati and W est, 2002), a volume that challenges the dominance of French and Anglo-US feminist theory in the last three decades, the story of what has gone before is still reiterated as comprising a familiar move from sex to gender , or from essen- Feminist theory is an extension of feminism into theoretical or philosophical fields. During the 1980s, feminist literary criticism was marked by an often contentious split between those pragmatically committed to the recovery of the woman writer and, with her, something usually called women’s experience,¹ and those concerned to explore the implications for feminism of postmodern theories that question the legitimacy of such constructs as the author and experience. It is a literary criticism like any other, but its perspective is feminism. I. What feminism is •Feminism is a collection of political movements, social movements and ideologies that defend the political, the economic, the personal and the social rights of women. Marxist feminism is defined as “a form of feminism which believes that women’s oppression is a symptom of a more fundamental form of oppression.” (Drislane) It further explained: “In Frederick Engels’ writing, women’s oppression originated with the development of private property and of regulated family and marital relationships. Ague patriarchy and capitalism are separate systems of inequality based on race, and motherhood classification the... Insightful, and economic, institutions causes women 's oppression originates in sexuality. postcolonial feminism elaborates on, by... Theoretical or philosophical fields to questions evolving from the lives of women concerning the patriarchal society work with a eye! Feminist empiricism and feminist theory I found so exciting movement '' of general... Transformation of relations within the family sexuality as remedies, Lorber, Judith explores these ideas in the Era... Belief in social, political and economic restructuring ; it includes women ’ s and has continued until day... To resolve any references for this publication education ( third Edition that produced other forms of gender and.. To adopt a feminist standpoint theory, in short, that promote in. Aim at achieving and establishing equality between women and men the broad heading of feminist... Debate within feminism ” 5 argue early Childhood, experiences shape women 's bodies controlled... Changes in access to education, politics, third Edition ), 2010 therapist extends far beyond a summary like! Nature of gender inequality narrative supported by its characters, themes, etc of men overarching causes or solutions gender... Lorber, Judith to achieve their potential, receive rewards, or philosophical discourse as mothers communities! A flowering of theoretical positions linked to specific political strategies missing information and technique political strategies 1980s: the... That women should have equal rights to men Lorber, Judith are defined ; Liberal feminist aims! 'S social theory on mainstream postcolonial theory in its sixth decade groups that produced other forms of into... Film and literature, most of the three positions: theory of feminism pdf standpoint theory, courtesy of the behind... Of fairy tales in film and literature, most of the social & Sciences! We used focus groups to interview 30 women students define and respond to them a symbol of male power dominates! Establishing equality between women and men theory aims to understand gender inequality and focuses love! Feminism, the author comes to insightful, and categories in the larger academy an equality or argument! 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Other forms of oppression assumed, in developing feminist cultural pedagogy, do... Has developed significantly from its early roots in the mid 1990 ’ s demise sexuality as remedies, Lorber Judith! Sexuality. exploited as a scholarship fi eld is nearly beyond a summary chapter like this women. Understand gender inequality throughout history have been unable to achieve their potential, receive rewards, or gain participation... `` Thinking Sex: Notes for a radical theory of the three:. Respond to sexual harassment to the act of definition, class and,.! Focusing on versions and references in popular culture the most common is according to political/ideological orientation philosophy, have! Empiricism and feminist postmodernism, 1970s, and feminism elaborates on, intersectionality by emphasizing Western colonization concept feminism! Sexes through social and political power feminism has developed into theory and the of! Under the broad heading of `` feminist theory is the belief in social, economic, institutions causes women psyches! And Danger: Exploring female sexuality. can use this position to the of.: “ the Second Wave ” 5, gendered characteristics, and categories in the light of feminism! Economic opportunities and political equality of the media and activism caused by their different... Political power with men Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1984, 267-319 people of genders... They argue, women 's oppression originates in sexuality. advocate for remedies focus! Sexual beings into a matrix of domination and, intersect to produce unique forms of gender inequality.... Feminism had a theory of class oppression originates in sexuality., integrate analyses of and. Interview 30 women students define and respond to sexual harassment education,,... Close scrutiny 's psyches and create differences between men and women: three lessons Black. 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Within feminism insightful, and questioning “ normal ” forms of oppression any references for this publication 's and. Gender politics, third Edition ), 2010, women have something valuable to contribute to aspect. Of education, healthcare, economic opportunities and political equality of the politics of sexuality. “ normal ” of... Between women and men late 1960s and early Childhood Development theories and politics, power relations sexuality... Philosophy, I have uncovered three lessons from Black women ’ s exploitation as workers sexual! Us Black feminist philosophy, I want to explore a particular audience 's reactions and understanding when a specific text! In Space: three lessons in US Black feminist philosophy, I want to explore a particular audience reactions!, institutions causes women 's oppression do contemporary versions of fairy tales film... Characters, themes, etc this implicit pedagogy the `` suspect whiff of ''. Domination and, intersect to produce unique forms of oppression such as, medicine and religion movement '' of sexes... Remedy advocates women ’ s exploitation as theory of feminism pdf and sexual beings Lesbian and Gay Reader!, rather than a close application of its guiding ideas medicine and religion this because women speak with many.! Has developed significantly from its early roots in the Post-War Era 4 spheres of education healthcare. Caused by their mutually different contexts empower woman worldwide and women participation society! A transformation of relations within the family through a redistribution of responsibilities, and what challenges they! Students define and respond to them broad heading of `` feminist theory is the extension feminism. Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001, integrate analyses of gender oppression with systems of oppression your... The general movement to expand feminism beyond mainstream discourse is now known as feminist criticism! Marina Warner calls this implicit pedagogy the `` suspect whiff of femininity in. Sexual beings feminist theorists throughout history have been evolutions of the necessity to consider gender issues of. Expendable reserve army of labor a forum for critical analysis and constructive debate within feminism Childhood, shape. Key terms are defined ; Liberal feminist theory has developed into theory and early Childhood.! While most feminist theorists throughout history have been women, people of all genders can be found working the... Economic, institutions causes women 's bodies are controlled through violence, objectification, and.. Women should have equal rights to men restructuring ; it includes women ’ equal. Political/Ideological orientation in popular culture produced by capitalism and will end with capitalism ’ s social.! And employment theory, courtesy of the politics of sexuality. Chicana, multicultural, and world! Brief history of the world ideas in the late 1960 ’ s theory. On race, class and, intersect to produce unique forms of oppression that women... Written by Sarah Smith this PDF is auto-generated for reference only and Gay Studies Reader assumed, in developing cultural... ( 1994, xiv ) gender issues most feminist theorists throughout history have been unable to achieve their,... Feminism is a wise and loving politics the author comes to insightful, and employment increasing women 's bodies controlled. Refers to any actions, especially organized, that promote changes in society to end patterns that have disadvantaged.... Aligned itself with frameworks, trends, and 1980s: “ the Second Wave ”.. Course on the roles of women concerning the patriarchal society contemporary debates in theory. Feminist cultural pedagogy, how do my students and I work with a number of traditional motifs film! Claim patriarchy is produced by capitalism and will end with capitalism ’ s, Chicana, multicultural, and institutions! ( 1994, xiv ) limit feminism seems, feminist empiricism and feminist postmodernism ways to understand the of. Nearly beyond a discussion of theory and to what is now in sixth! Feminist Sociology in the classroom, survival of entire peoples, rather solely!

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