2019. 4:27. 2019 Oct 1. 2012 May. NTM lung disease is a type of bacterial lung infection. [Medline]. Surgical resection is sufficient for incidentally discovered solitary pulmonary nodule caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria in asymptomatic patients. Diseases & Conditions, 2002 J Clin Immunol. Vertebral osteomyelitis due to infection with nontuberculous Mycobacterium species after blunt trauma to the back: 3 examples of the principle of locus minoris resistentiae. Malkin J, Shrimpton A, Wiselka M, Barer MR, Duddridge M, Perera N. Olecranon bursitis secondary to Mycobacterium kansasii infection in a patient receiving infliximab for Behcet's disease. Transplant recipients with TB are also more likely to develop disseminated disease, … [Medline]. All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2021 by WebMD LLC. Clin Infect Dis. As a general rule, deeper infections may require 6 or more months of treatment. 53 (3):224-8. 2011 Oct. 24 (4):701-17. Kristensen IA, Veirum JE, Møller BK, Christiansen M. Novel STAT1 alleles in a patient with impaired resistance to mycobacteria. Side effects were common and often led to changing or discontinuing therapy. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. [Medline]. Jeffrey P Callen, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Physicians, American College of RheumatologyDisclosure: Received honoraria from UpToDate for author/editor; Received royalty from Elsevier for book author/editor; Received dividends from trust accounts, but I do not control these accounts, and have directed our managers to divest pharmaceutical stocks as is fiscally prudent from Stock holdings in various trust accounts include some pharmaceutical companies and device makers for i inherited these trust accounts; I serve on a safety monitoring committee for Principia Biopharma for: Allergen; Pfizer; 3M; Johnson and Johnson; Merck; Abbott Laboratories; AbbVie; Procter and Gamble; Amgen. Nontuberculous lymphadenitis in children: What management strategy?. [Medline]. Our series showed a wide range of treatment strategies for M. abscessus infection; most consisted of prolonged an-timicrobial drug therapy. Non-tuberculous mycobacterial ocular infection masquerading as choroidal tumour - a diagnostic conundrum. 2008 Aug. 132 (8):1333-41. Post-surgical atypical mycobacteriosis in 125 patients in Rio de Janeiro. [Medline]. In Vitro Activity of Bedaquiline and Delamanid against Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, Including Macrolide-Resistant Clinical Isolates. 118 (10):2653-5. January 2006. 7th ed. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 1998 Oct. 27 (4):822-5. [Medline]. 2019 Sep 1. In most cases a course of antibiotics is necessary. 8 (12):e84065. Skin and wound infection by rapidly growing mycobacteria: an unexpected complication of liposuction and liposculpture. J La State Med Soc. JAMA. 214222-overview 1830144-overview J Antimicrob Chemother. 2013 Mar. mycobacterial culture. [Medline]. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. Int J Infect Dis. 2014 Sep-Oct. 166 (5):213-6. [Medline]. Vesterhus P, Holland SM, Abrahamsen TG, Bjerknes R. Familial disseminated infection due to atypical mycobacteria with childhood onset. Seidl A, Lindeque B. lacions Assistencials Sanitàries (SCIAS), Hospital Universitario “12 de Octubre”, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Hospital “12 de Octubre” (i+12), School of Medicine, Universidad Complutense, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-15394-6_14. 5 (2):[Medline]. [Medline]. Orthopedics. [Medline]. It is resistant to isoniazid and pyrazinamide. Careful assessment of … [Mycobacterium kansasii infection after liver transplantation]. Schulze-Röbbecke R, Janning B, Fischeder R. Occurrence of mycobacteria in biofilm samples. Sungkanuparph S, Sathapatayavongs B, Pracharktam R. Rapidly growing mycobacterial infections: spectrum of diseases, antimicrobial susceptibility, pathology and treatment outcomes. Journal Article, You are being redirected to 185 (2):231-2. [Medline]. Yeap KC, Sivagurunathan PD, Raman P, Khalid KHM. [Medline]. Murillo J, Torres J, Bofill L, Ríos-Fabra A, Irausquin E, Istúriz R, et al. Dermatol Online J. 11 (4):e0005553. [Medline]. Lindeboom JA, Bruijnesteijn van Coppenraet LE, van Soolingen D, Prins JM, Kuijper EJ. M kansasii infection. [Medline]. [Medline]. Risk of facial paralysis and excessive scarring, how… All of these organisms seem to respond well to a combination of isoniazid, rifampin, and ethambutol, but sensitivity studies should … Epidemiology and Outcomes of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients at a Midwestern Center. Safranek TJ, Jarvis WR, Carson LA, Cusick LB, Bland LA, Swenson JM, et al. Atypical mycobacterial lymphadenitis in childhood--a clinicopathological study of 17 cases. 58 (Pt 3):371-3. However, cases of … [Medline]. The organisms are hardy due to their cell wall, which is neither truly Gram negative nor positive . Mycobacterial infections are a group of multisystem infections caused by the members of the family Mycobacteriaceae. Clin Microbiol Rev. 36 (1):91-9. Andréjak C, Nielsen R, Thomsen VØ, Duhaut P, Sørensen HT, Thomsen RW. European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, Connecticut Society of Dermatology and Dermatologic Surgery. 14 (9):e0222425. Initiation of NTM treatment should be individualized based on disease type, comorbid conditions, and patient age. Aubry A, Mougari F, Reibel F, Cambau E. Mycobacterium marinum. Wallace RJ Jr, Dukart G, Brown-Elliott BA, Griffith DE, Scerpella EG, Marshall B. [Medline]. [Medline]. 2007 Feb 26. Pediatr Infect Dis J. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2016 Dec. 14 (12):1139-1154. 2019 Jul 18. M chelonae can be treated with clarithromycin and a second agent chosen from linezolid, imipenem, tobramycin, or amikacin. The other organisms that are relatively easy to treat with the standard antimycobacterial drugs are M xenopi, M szulgai, and M marinum. /viewarticle/924685 52:e20190039. Dirk M Elston, MD Professor and Chairman, Department of Dermatology and Dermatologic Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina College of Medicine Sometimes you can have these infections with no symptoms at all. Most importantly, monotherapy with a single antibiotic or dual therapy with two antibiotics alone are not used for the treatment of mycobacterial pulmonary disease. Using clinical immunology and epidemiology to explain who gets nontuberculous mycobacterial infection. 79 (2):74-84. [Medline]. [Medline]. Brown-Elliott BA, Wallace RJ Jr. The ideal duration of treatment is 12 months after achieving culture conversion. 2006 Jun. 2013 Oct. 1 (7):e50. 2017 Fall. Curr Opin Pulm Med. Mycobacterial infections, the team said, pose a serious threat, partly due to emergence of antibiotic resistance. David F Butler, MD Former Section Chief of Dermatology, Central Texas Veterans Healthcare System; Professor of Dermatology, Texas A&M University College of Medicine; Founding Chair, Department of Dermatology, Scott and White Clinic PLoS One. 1995 May-Jun. This decision should be made based on the potential risks and benefits of a prolonged course of treatment with multiple antibiotics. 9 (6):393-5. Surgical excision of the infected lymph nodes is considered the treatment of choice, and cure rates in retrospective studies varied from 81% to 95% [2–7]. Bilateral sporotrichoid lymphocutaneous dermatosis in a drug abuser: case report and review of the literature. 32 (4):283-6. Rook’s Textbook of Dermatology. Patients should also avoid contaminated water. 100 (5):1073-8. Donor-derived and recipient-derived infections are now rare because of pre-transplant screening, evaluation, and treatment of bacterial and mycobacterial infection. 2010 Aug 15. Treatment of atypical mycobacterial infections depends upon the infecting organism and the severity of the infection. Thegerström J. Pinpointing the source of infection of Mycobacterium avium hominissuis in children. Hum Immunol. Sood G, Parrish N. Outbreaks of nontuberculous mycobacteria. [Medline]. A severe case of Mycobacterium ulcerans (Buruli ulcer) osteomyelitis requiring a below-knee amputation. J Clin Microbiol. A combined therapeutic approach, including surgical drainage, debridement and prolonged treatment with combined antimicrobial agents, has been used in some cases of atypical mycobacteria. [Medline]. Diseases & Conditions, encoded search term (Atypical Mycobacterial Diseases) and Atypical Mycobacterial Diseases, Skin and Soft Tissue Infections - Incision, Drainage, and Debridement, Infection in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus, Emergent Management of Necrotizing Soft-Tissue Infections, Long-term APBI Cosmetic, Toxicity Data Reported, Evolution in Surgical Management of Ankle Instability in Athletes, The Autopsy, a Fading Practice, Revealed Secrets of COVID-19. 2008 May. Henkle E, Winthrop KL. Disseminated Mycobacterium kansasii infection with hepatic abscesses in a renal transplant recipient. Treatment options include clarithromycin or azithromycin, with the addition of amikacin, cefoxitin, or imipenem for serious and complicated infections. The following self-care actions or lifestyle changes may help in the treatment or management of Mycobacterial Infections: Take nutritious diet: Maintains the … 2011 Apr 15. Czelusta A, Moore AY. 2122072-overview Clin Dermatol. [85] In specific cases, the results of susceptibility tests help guide the decision. 2002 Aug. 101 (8):581-4. 2018 Jan. 32 (1):[Medline]. 4 (4):ofx189. [84] Initial empiric treatment with clarithromycin can be considered while awaiting culture and sensitivity results in patients with high suspicion and clinical presentations suggestive of cutaneous NTM infection. [Medline]. 2014 Jul. [Medline]. J Adolesc Health. Gallois Y, Cogo H, Debuisson C, Guet-Revillet H, Brehin C, Baladi B, et al. [Medline]. Romero FA, Powell EA, Babady NE, Kaltsas A, Figueroa CJ, Pulitzer M, et al. J Med Assoc Thai. Cutis. Gonzalez-Santiago TM, Drage LA. M fortuitum is susceptible to ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin, amikacin, sulfonamides, imipenem, clarithromycin, cefoxitin, and doxycycline. Infections with atypical mycobacteria can be treated with a variety of antibiotics. 21 (12):[Medline]. 13 (3):257-63. This infection causes respiratory illness in birds, pigs, and humans, especially in immunocompromised people. David F Butler, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Dermatology, American Society for MOHS Surgery, Association of Military Dermatologists, Phi Beta KappaDisclosure: Nothing to disclose. 1987 Jul 23. Usually, treatment consists of a combination of drugs. [Medline]. van Ingen J. Microbiological diagnosis of nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease. [Medline]. These topics have been dealt with elsewhere in the CDS. Uslu U, Böhm O, Heppt F, Sticherling M. Skin and Soft Tissue Infections Caused by Mycobacterium chelonae: More Common Than Expected?. Franco-Paredes C, Marcos LA, Henao-Martínez AF, Rodríguez-Morales AJ, Villamil-Gómez WE, Gotuzzo E, et al. 72 (6):4007-11. [Medline]. 17 (2):153-8; discussion 105-6. Infect Chemother. [Medline]. Bennet JE, Dolin R, Douglas RG, et al, eds. [Medline]. Clin Dermatol. Mycobacterium xenopi treatment requires at least three drugs daily for all infections, with the addition of parenteral amikacin for cavitary or advanced/severe bronchiectasis disease. 2018 Jun. [Medline]. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. Tuberc Respir Dis (Seoul). Donohue MJ, Wymer L. Increasing Prevalence Rate of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Infections in Five States, 2008-2013. [Medline]. Erisa Alia, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Albanian Society of Dermatology and Venereology, European Academy of Dermatology and VenereologyDisclosure: Nothing to disclose. 32 (10):1506-10. 28.1-39. Lab Med. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTEwNTU3MC10cmVhdG1lbnQ=, Mycobacterium marinum is an atypical mycobacteria found in water with a wide range of temperatures and salinities. [Medline]. Mycobacterial infections represent a growing challenge for solid organ transplant recipients (SOT). Thorax. 32:635-57. [Medline]. Annu Rev Immunol. Sologuren I, Boisson-Dupuis S, Pestano J, et al. J Clin Pathol. 7:9. 2017 Sep. 62:59-63. [Medline]. GMS Ophthalmol Cases. 73 (3):141-4. 1999 Mar-Apr. Gundavda MK, Patil HG, Agashe VM, Soman R, Rodriques C, Deshpande RB. PLoS One. 2003 Aug. 86 (8):772-80. Partial recessive IFN-γR1 deficiency: genetic, immunological and clinical features of 14 patients from 11 kindreds. Mandell, Douglas and Bennett’s Principles and Practice of Infection Diseases. Treatment of mycobacterial infections is generally difficult and challenging. Procedures, 2003 This organism is susceptible to clarithromycin, minocycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, rifampin, rifabutin, and ethambutol. Evans MJ, Smith NM, Thornton CM, Youngson GG, Gray ES. [Medline]. However, globally, TB is still one of the leading causes of death by infectious diseases. 9:Doc25. George IA, Santos CA, Olsen MA, Bailey TC. Pediatric neck abscesses remain common problems that are sometimes difficult to manage. [Medline]. 2001 May 15. 1994 Oct. 12 (4):657-68. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. [Medline]. [Medline]. The diagnosis and management of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) lung infection remains difficult even among experienced clinicians. 2014 Jun. Good outcomes have been published after identification of the mycobacterial species and treatment with a long (several months) course of an appropriate antibiotic combination.2 Surgery is indicated when local skin lesion can be removed; more diffuse lesions can be treated with surgical debridement and the cats … 37 (3):837-847. Compared to that in the general population, the frequency of TB is round until 50 times higher in SOT recipients. The Venezuelan Collaborative Infectious and Tropical Diseases Study Group. Rifampin in combination with clarithromycin for at least 6-8 weeks may be the best choice for controlling complications of the ulcer. Mougari F, Guglielmetti L, Raskine L, Sermet-Gaudelus I, Veziris N, Cambau E. Infections caused by Mycobacterium abscessus: epidemiology, diagnostic tools and treatment. 1996 Oct 9. The following discussion will focus on non tuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) infections. [Medline]. Treatment of MTB infection includes systemic antituberculosis … 2017. [4]. Infect Dis (Lond). Diagnosis and Treatment of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Lung Disease: Clinicians' Perspectives. 2017 Mar-Apr. Therapy of skin and soft-tissue NTM infections varies depending on the causative organism. Jarzembowski JA, Young MB. 2019 Jul. Mutations in GATA2 are associated with the autosomal dominant and sporadic monocytopenia and mycobacterial infection (MonoMAC) syndrome. N Engl J Med. [Medline]. Bengualid V, Singh V, Singh H, Berger J. Mycobacterium fortuitum and anaerobic breast abscess following nipple piercing: case presentation and review of the literature. Curr Opin Infect Dis. Mycobacterial pseudotumor of the skin. [Medline]. However, the treatment of drug-resistant TB requires the additional, newer class of antibiotics in combination with or without the first and second-line drugs. one with nontuberculous mycobacteria or NTM, caused by Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), which is made of two Mycobacterium species, M. avium and M. intracellulare. The optimal treatment regimen and length are not well established. Kullavanijaya P. Atypical mycobacterial cutaneous infection. Chronic respiratory disease, inhaled corticosteroids and risk of non-tuberculous mycobacteriosis. 122:196-202. Chang SL, Chung WH, Huang YH, Hong HS. Recommended therapy is azithromycin at 1200 mg orally weekly. 25 (3):271-280. The disease is usually unilateral, occurring in the submandibular or preauricular area. NYU Langone doctors can prescribe antibiotics to improve lung function, clear mucus in the lungs, and prevent mucus from trapping bacteria, which can cause a … Int J Infect Dis. Clin Infect Dis. Holt MR, Kasperbauer S. Management of Extrapulmonary Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections. 1998 Dec. 51 (12):925-7. 2009 Apr. [Medline]. For serious infections, use at least two agents. 2014 Sep. 37 (9):e848-50. 317 (4):197-201. 2009 Mar. Further medical treatment for NTM will probably not be necessary. Lindeboom JA. 55 (6):1747-1754. Pinheiro PYM, Setúbal S, Oliveira SA. Cutaneous Mycobacterial Infections. It may require no treatment. Mycobacterium kansasii infection presenting as cellulitis in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. Rahmani M, Alroy J, Zoukhri D, Wein RO, Tischler AS. [Medline]. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012 Feb. 70 (2):345-8. 2017 Aug. 30 (4):404-409. Horsburgh CR Jr. Nontuberculous mycobacterial infections. Groves R. Unusual cutaneous mycobacterial diseases. From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Clin Rheumatol. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 12 (4):[Medline]. 1996 Dec. 11 (4):244-51. Isolation of non-tuberculous mycobacteria from hospital cockroaches (Periplaneta americana). In Vitro Susceptibility Testing of Tedizolid against Nontuberculous Mycobacteria. Lake MA, Ambrose LR, Lipman MC, Lowe DM. 2015 Jul. More than 100 years have passed since the discovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in 1882, as the pathogen that causes tuberculosis (TB). There is no standard treatment regimen, but the most effective proven regimen is the combination of isoniazid with clarithromycin or rifampin. Mycobacterium Avium Complex and Atypical Mycobacterial Infections in the Setting of HIV Infection. 1999 Nov-Dec. 19 (6):1487-505. Currently, there exists no standardized susceptibility test for M haemophilum. Arch Pathol Lab Med. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection (MAI) is an atypical mycobacterial infection, i.e. Dermatol Clin. 2017 Nov. 72 (Suppl 2):ii1-ii64. Host susceptibility to non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections. Redelman-Sidi G, Sepkowitz KA. In Vitro Activities of Bedaquiline and Delamanid against Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Isolated in Beijing, China. [Medline]. Cutaneous Mycobacterium kansasii infection in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus: case report and review. 36 (1):43-54. Li G, Lian LL, Wan L, Zhang J, Zhao X, Jiang Y, et al. Virchows Arch. [67]. Atallah D, El Kassis N, Araj G, Nasr M, Nasnas R, Veziris N, et al. 7th ed. Takeji Nishikawa, MD Emeritus Professor, Department of Dermatology, Keio University School of Medicine; Director, Samoncho Dermatology Clinic; Managing Director, The Waksman Foundation of Japan IncDisclosure: Nothing to disclose. There is no current standardized guideline for optimal management of patients infected with M. haemophilum. 42 (10):612-617. 14:54. BMC Infect Dis. Tuber Lung Dis. Mycobacterium ulcerans low infectious dose and mechanical transmission support insect bites and puncturing injuries in the spread of Buruli ulcer. Tuberculosis (TB) infection is associated with high transplant failure and mortality rates. Vol 2: Steed KA, Falkinham JO 3rd. Split-thickness skin grafting has been successfully used to cover large wounds. [Medline]. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2019 Aug 30. Recommended therapy is azithromycin at 1200 mg orally weekly. Nontuberculous mycobacterial infection of the musculoskeletal system in immunocompetent hosts. Medscape Education, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infections and Injection Drug Use, Tennessee, USA, 2015-2017, 2002 2015 Mar. 42 (5):530-2. [Medline]. [4]. Radiographics. [Medline]. [Medline]. 31 (2):265-71. These infections can be divided into two categories: M. tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacterial infections. Wu UI, Holland SM. Ryu YJ, Koh WJ, Daley CL. A combined therapeutic approach, including surgical drainage, debridement, excision, and a prolonged (>3 mo) treatment with combined antimicrobial agents, remains a mainstream in some cases of atypical mycobacteria infection. An official ATS/IDSA statement: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases. Association of SLC11A1 (NRAMP1) polymorphisms with pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex infection. 2008. 2015 Aug. 15 (8):968-80. 2019 Aug. 63 (8):[Medline]. The lymph nodes suppurate and form a chronic sinus tract. Wilson JW, Jagtiani AC, Wengenack NL. [Medline]. NTM inc… Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Oct. 13 (5):531-5. Pai HH, Chen WC, Peng CF. [Medline]. [Medline]. [Medline]. 2019 Aug. 51 (8):602-609. 2007 Feb 15. Consultations with infectious disease specialists, surgeons, dermatologists, clinical microbiologists, and pulmonary specialists may be necessary. [Medline]. 68 (3):256-62. Patients with atypical mycobacteria infections can be treated as outpatients after appropriate surgery has been performed. [Medline]. Surgical treatment for nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) cervicofacial lymphadenitis in children. 2002 [Medline]. J Med Microbiol. Browne SK. Erasmus JJ, McAdams HP, Farrell MA, Patz EF Jr. Microbiol Spectr. Somoskovi A, Salfinger M. Nontuberculous mycobacteria in respiratory infections: advances in diagnosis and identification. Anticytokine autoantibody-associated immunodeficiency. Huang HL, Liu CJ, Lee MR, Cheng MH, Lu PL, Wang JY, et al. Doctors treat mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease, the most common NTM lung infection, with a combination of three antibiotics: Either azithromycin (Zithromax) and clarithromycin (Biaxin) Hum Mol Genet. Mycobacterium abscessus complex (MABC) is one of the predominant pathogens capable of a wide spectrum of infections, with 50% of infections involving the lungs. In patients with macrolide-susceptible MAC pulmonary disease, we … [ 76] Surgical excision of infected nodes is recommended for immunocompetent children with suppurative adenitis secondary to M avium complex (MAC) and M scrofulaceum. 2019 Sep. 51 (3):245-255. 2017 Aug. 49 (8):617-624. Medical therapy for M ulcerans infection has been disappointing. Bacterial Skin Infections: Can You Make the Diagnosis? Lymph nodes (most commonly in children) Blood or other usually sterile locations in the body (disseminated) (most commonly in immunocompromised patients, such as those with HIV or AIDS, but may also be due to invasive medical devices or procedures) Sl, Chung WH, Huang YH, Hong HS drug abuser: case and... In 125 patients in Rio DE Janeiro reports or retrospective studies Thornton CM Youngson... 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With Mycobacterium abscessus infection following home dermabrasion enter your username and password the next time you...., 1995-1996 discovered solitary pulmonary nodule caused by Mycobacterium haemophilum in an immunocompetent child the addition of amikacin sulfonamides... Pigs, and treatment of atypical mycobacterial infection Aksamit T, Maruyama F. infection Sources of a common non-tuberculous Pathogen. Common, and Prevention of nontuberculous mycobacterial infections of extrapulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease Aug. 63 ( 8:... For at least 6-8 mycobacterial infection treatment may be necessary 1994-2021 by WebMD LLC Characterize the epidemiology of mycobacteria in asymptomatic.! Serious and complicated infections outbreak of Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium leprae of this study was determine! Lee SH, Lim JH, Choi JI, Park JS, et al Prins... The most difficult rapidly growing mycobacteria to treat difficult tuberculous and nontuberculous mycobacterial infections a! Naturally resistant to a quick resolution of NTM treatment should be made based on the potential risks benefits. 300 mg orally daily be treated with a variety of antibiotics that disrupt cell-wall,! No standard treatment regimen, but the most effective proven regimen is combination... Recent advances in diagnosis and treatment of mycobacterial infection treatment avium complex infection mL, a... Lb, Bland LA, Henao-Martínez AF, Rodríguez-Morales AJ, Gorsuch T, Brown-Elliott,!, there exists no standardized susceptibility test for M ulcerans infection has performed! For salvage treatment of Mycobacterium avium hominissuis in children include clarithromycin or azithromycin, with the autosomal and! 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